Terminology Database







There are many terms used in the professional kitchen and the hospitality industry and most of them are derived from the French language. It is not uncommon for chefs to be throwing around a lot of French terms within the kitchen while communicating to other work mates during service and preparation times.

I often get asked about the meaning of particular terms so I have put together a list of common words that are regularly (and not so regularly) used in today’s hospitality environment.

There are convenient categories that cover everything that you need to know including chef rankings, kitchen terms, coffee terms, wine terms, beer terms and bar and restaurant terms.


Chef Rankings

It all depends on the workplace to what chefs are required in the kitchen. A massive multi-outlet hotel would have most in place whereas a small cafe or restaurant may only have the Head, Sous, apprentice and casuals.

·         Executive Chef - Head of kitchen department, usually in charge of several kitchens of a hotel.

·         Head Chef - Head of kitchen brigade, usually a restaurant or cafe.

·         Chef de Cuisine - Head chef of department in larger hotels.

·         Sous Chef - Second in charge. Also includes levels of Executive Sous and Junior Sous.

·         Chef de Partie - Section leader.

·         Demi Chef - Assistant to the Chef de Partie and leader of the Commis.

·         Commis Chef - Recently qualified chef.

·         Apprentice Chef 1st, 2nd and 3rd - Unqualified chef in training.

·         Cook - Unqualified but skilled kitchen assistant.

·         Kitchen hand / Kitchen porter - Performs basic tasks and cleaning.

There are also other positions but they are rarely used in today’s kitchens.

·         Chef de Rang - Head station waiter, not a chef.

·         Chef Gardemanger - Cold larder chef

·         Chef Grillardin - Grill chef

·         Chef Patissiére - Pastry chef

·         Chef Poissonnier - Fish chef

·         Chef Rotisseur - Roast chef

·         Chef Saucier - Sauce chef

·         Chef Tournant - Relief chef, fills in where needed.

·         Chef de Nuit - Head night cook


General Kitchen Terminology

·         á la carte - Menu where dishes are prepared to order and priced individually

·         a la minute - Cooked to order

·         á la - In the style of

·         Accompaniments - Items offered separately with a dish of food

·         Achar - Indian pickle

·         Adobo - Filipino stew from fish, meat or chicken

·         Agar-agar - Gelatine substance made from seaweed

·         Agnolotti - A small half-moon shaped ravioli

·         Agro dolce - Sweet and sour

·         Aiguillette - Originally strips of duck breast (now any meat or poultry)

·         Aioli - Basically a garlic infused mayonnaise

·         Al Dente - A term, used to describe the correct degree of cooking for pasta “to the teeth” crunchy

·         Albumen - The protein of egg whites

·         Alfredo - A pasta sauce consisting of butter, cream, and parmesan cheese

·         Alumette - Matchstick shape usually potato (French fries)

·         Amino acid - The basic material from which proteins are made of

·         Anglaise - “English” also abbreviated kitchen term for fresh egg custard (see crème anglaise)

·         Angel hair - Very fine pasta

·         Angles on horseback - Oysters wrapped in bacon

·         Antipasto - Italian appetiser

·         Aromates - Aromatic herbs or spices

·         Arrowroot - A starch similar in appearance and qualities as cornstarch

·         Aspic - A jelly made from stock, fumet, wine, or fruit juices (available in convenience form)

·         Au beurre - With butter

·         Au gratin - Sprinkled with cheese or breadcrumbs and browned

·         Au natural - Dishes prepared simply and plainly

·         Aubergine - Eggplant

·         Baba ganoush - Aubergine purée (Middle Eastern mezze dish)

·         Bagel - Doughnut shaped round bread rolls

·         Bocconcini - Fresh mozzarella cheese balls

·         Bain-marie -A water bath (or container of water) used for cooking or keeping food hot

·         Baking Powder - A leavening agent combining an acid with bicarbonate of soda

·         Baking Soda - An essential ingredient in baking powder

·         Baklava - Turkish and greek sweet made from filo pastry in layers filled with a mixture of ground nuts and sugar

·         Ballontine - Boned and stuffed leg of poultry or game bird

·         Barquette - A small oval shaped pastry shell with either sweet or savoury fillings

·         Basmati - Aromatic long-grained rice

·         Baste - To spoon over liquid during cooking

·         Baton - Stick-shaped

·         Béarnaise - An extension of hollandaise sauce with a tarragon reduction

·         Béchamel - Roux-based white sauce

·         Beef Tartare - Ground raw beef with minced onion, parsley, capers, egg and Worcestershire sauce

·         Beef Wellington - Fillet of beef with duxelle rolled in puff pastry. Modern usage substitutes uses pate instead of duxelle (or both)

·         Bell Pepper - Capsicum

·         Bento box - A Japanese lunch box. A single portion box filled with japanese dishes

·         Beurre - French for butter

·         Beurre Blanc - An emulsified sauce made of a wine or vinegar reduction blended with softened butter and cream

·         BeurreManié- Equal quantities of butter and flour mixed to a smooth paste

·         Beurre noir - Blackened butter

·         Beurre Noisette - Nut brown butter

·         Biscotti - Dry Italian cookies.

·         Bisque - A shellfish based soup

·         Blanch - To plunge into boiling water or oil without fully cooking

·         Blind bake - To bake a pie base before it is used. It is filled with baking paper and rice to hold the shape

·         Blinis- A small pancake

·         Bombe Alaska - A dessert made from sponge cake, ice cream and meringue

·         Boning Knife - A medium sized knife with a strong, thin blade.

·         Bouchée - Bite sized puff pastry cases, usually filled with a savoury filling and served as a canapé or savoury

·         Burrito - Mexican meat filling is wrapped in a flour tortilla

·         Bouillabaisse - A rich fish stew

·         Bouillon - Unclarified stock (from the french word to bubble, as in when liquid boils)

·         Bouquet garni - A bundle of fresh herbs parsley, thyme, bay leaf, usually tied with celery

·         Bourguignon- Burgundy style a red wine sauce with the addition of button onions and mushrooms

·         Bran - The outer husk of grains such as wheat, containing a high percentage of fibre.

·         Brine - A preserving solution of water, salt, and aromates used for meats

·         Brioche - A delicate, buttery French sweet bread, traditionally served at breakfast

·         Brochette - Skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables that are grilled over a flame and simply served,

·         Brunoise - Small dice of fruit or vegetables

·         Buffet - A display of hot and cold foods,

·         Bulgur - Cracked wheat made from the whole kernel that has been cooked and dried. Most commonly used in tabouli 

·         Butterfly - to cut something in half most of the way through and opening like a book. Assists in cooking more even and also quicker.

·         Calamari - The Italian word for squid

·         Calcium - A mineral required for the building of healthy bones and teeth

·         Calvados - An apple brandy

·         Calzone - A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside

·         Canapé - Small piece of food served hot or cold as an appetiser

·         Cannelloni - An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin

·         Caper - The pickled bud of a plant which is used in sauces and as condiments for fish

·         Caramelise - To slowly brown sugar or foods such as onions and carrots over heat

·         Carbonara - Spaghetti sauce of egg, bacon and parmesan

·         Carpaccio - Originally thin slices of raw red meat, now also applied to fish

·         Carte du jour - Menu of the day

·         Cartouche - Round cover of greaseproof paper

·         Caul Fat - The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crépinette

·         Caviar - The roe or eggs of salmon

·         Champignon - French for mushroom

·         Chantilly - Whipped cream; sweetened and flavoured with vanilla

·         Chaud - Hot

·         Chermoula - Moroccan fish marinade

·         Chiffonade - A very fine julienne of green leaf vegetables

·         Chinois - A conical strainer

·         Chipolata - Thin small pork sausage

·         Chipotle - Very hot chilli or dried and smoked jalapeno which can be found dried or reconstituted and sold in tomato sauce

·         Chlorophyll - The chemical that gives plants their green colour

·         Chorizo - A spicy pork sausage ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot

·         Choron - Variation of béarnaise sauce with tomato puree or concassé added

·         Clarification - To make clear

·         Cleaver - A heavy, solid square knife.

·         Clotted Cream - Cream made by gently heating rich, unpasteurised milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface

·         Coagulation - The solidification of a protein which is irreversible

·         Cock-a-Leekie - Scottish soup made with a chicken and leeks broth garnished with barley

·         Combi Oven - An oven that’s able to roast, steam or both using a number of different settings.

·         Compote - Stewed fruit

·         Concassé - Means chopping a vegetable coarsely is used to describe chopped tomatoes

·         Confit - meat or poultry cooked and preserved in its own fat

·         Consommé - A clarified stock

·         Cook out - The process of cooking the flour in a roux or fully cooking a dish

·         Coppa - The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced

·         Coq au Vin - A chicken stew made with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions

·         Cote - A rib or chop

·         Cottage cheese - Soft cheese made from skimmed milk

·         Coulis - A puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce

·         Courgette - French for zucchini

·         Court bouillon - Flavoured cooking liquor for fish

·         Couscous - A pasta made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from durum wheat)

·         Couverture - A form of cooking chocolate

·         Crackling - A crispy piece of skin remaining after the fat is rendered. Commonly made from pork, duck, and goose

·         Cream  - To rub, whip or beat with a spoon or mixer until mixture is soft and fluffy. Usually describes the combining of butter and sugar for a cake

·         Crème - Cream or to cream

·         Crème Anglaise- English cream (custard)

·         Crème fraiche - Whipped cream and buttermilk heated to 24-29 c;

·         Crème Patisserie - Pastry cream

·         Crêpes - Thin pancakes

·         Croquembouche - A dessert made up of filled profiteroles, stacked in a pyramid

·         Croquette - Cylindrical shaped foods, most common potato that iscrumbed and deep fried

·         Croute - A slice of bread cut to shape and toasted or fried; used as a base used for salads and for soups

·         Croûtons - Cubes of fried bread

·         Crudités - Raw batons of diced or sliced vegetables served with a dip

·         Cuttlefish - A cousin to the squid that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh

·         Daikon - Large white radish

·         Dariole Mould - A small mould

·         Dauphinoise - The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with grated cheese

·         Deglaze  - To use wine, stock or water in order to use release the sediment on the pan back into the sauce

·         Degustation - A menu of multiple small courses, usually seven.

·         Demi glace-A rich, glossy brown sauce from which the liquid has been partly evaporated, typically flavoured with wine and served with meat

·         Denté - Teeth

·         Dijonnaise - The term is given to a dish that contains Dijon mustard or is served with a sauce that contains the mustard

·         Dolmas - A Greek hors d'oeuvre made of grape leaves stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and onion.

·         Double Boiler - A bowl sitting over a pot of steaming water in order to gently heat a product.

·         Duchess - The name for a basic potato purée that is enriched with butter and egg yolk

·         Duxelle - Finely chopped mushrooms and shallots, sweated in butter and used as a stuffing or garnish

·         Egg-wash - Mixture of egg and milk

·         Empanada - A small savoury pie from Spain and South America. Fillings may be made of meat, seafood, or vegetables

·         Emulsion - Mixture of mutually insoluble liquids in which one is suspended in another

·         En cocotte - Cooked in a small round dish

·         Entrée - The opening course to a meal

·         Escalope - Thin slice of meat

·         Escargot - Snails

·         Etuvee - Cooked in own juices

·         Falafel - Middle eastern small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas

·         Farce - Stuffing

·         Farfalle - Bowtie shaped pasta

·         Fava Bean - Flat bean resembles a very large lima bean

·         Fenugreek - Plant of which the seeds are ground and used as a spice in curries and chutneys

·         Fettuccine - Flat narrow pasta noodles less than wide and a bit thicker than tagliatelle

·         Filleting Knife - A medium sized knife with a thin flexible blade.

·         Flambé - To flame with alcohol

·         Focaccia - Flat, round, flavoured Italian bread

·         Foie - Liver

·         Foie gras- Goose liver (pâté)

·         Frappe - Chilled

·         Fricassee - A white stew in which the meat, fish or poultry is cooked in a velouté sauce

·         Frittata - A baseless quiche or an open-faced omelette

·         Froid - Cold

·         Fromage- Cheese

·         Fugu - Japanese for swellfish; globefish; blowfish; balloonfish; puffer, only licensed fugu chefs are allowed to prepare

·         Fruits de mer - Assorted seafood, usually shellfish

·         Fusilli - Spiral shaped pasta. Some versions are shaped like a spring. Other versions are shaped like a twisted spiral

·         Galangal - Root from the ginger family, used in thai cuisine

·         Galantine - A boned, stuffed whole bird (or breast of veal), it may be poached or roasted and served cold or hot

·         Galette - Flat, round, sweet or savoury cake or biscuit

·         Ganache- Cake topping or filling made from chocolate and cream

·         Garam Masala - A combination of indian spices

·         Gazpacho - A cold vegetable soup with many variations version include puree of fresh tomatoes and cucumber

·         Garde-manger - The cold preparation section of a kitchen

·         Garni- To garnish

·         Garnish - Trimmings on a dish for presentation purposes

·         Gateau -Layers

·         Gelatine - A protein produced from animals, used to gel liquids. It is found in granular and sheet form

·         Gelato - Italian Ice cream

·         Ghee - Clarified butter

·         Glacé - Iced or glazed

·         Gluten - The protein found in wheat flours

·         Gnocchi - Small Italian dumplings cooked in boiling water and served with sauce

·         Goujon- Small strips of fish fillet

·         Gras - Fat, plump

·         Gratin - Sweet or savoury dish that is browned under a grill or in an oven

·         Gravlax -Salmon fillets that have been cured with salt, sugar, and dill

·         Grenouille - Frog

·         Grissini - Italian bread sticks

·         Guacamole - A dip made from mashed avocados seasoned with onions, tomatoes, chillies, and coriander

·         Haloumi - Goats’ milk cheese

·         Haute - High class – (haute cuisine high class kitchen)

·         Hoi Sin Sauce - Chinese sauce made from soybean flour, chillies, and red beans, most common with Peking duck

·         Hollandaise Sauce - Emulsified egg and butter sauce

·         Hors d'oeuvre - Appetiser

·         Involtini - Thin slices of meat or fish which are stuffed and rolled. They may then be sautéed, grilled, or baked

·         Jardinière - Vegetables cut into batons

·         Julienne - Vegetables cut into fine strips

·         Jus lie - A jus that has been slightly thickened with cornstarch or flour

·         Jus - A rich, reduced stock used as a sauce

·         Ketchup - A sweet sauce made from tomatoes. Other forms of ketchup are made from walnuts, mushrooms, and grapes

·         Ketjapmanis - Thick, sweetened soy sauce

·         Kirsch - A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits.

·         Korma - North Indian spiced meat stew

·         Laksa - Malay soup with noodles and seafood

·         Larder - The cold preparation section of a kitchen see also garde manger

·         Lardon- Baton of thick streaky bacon

·         Légume -Nuts

·         Liaison - A thickening or binding; usually egg yolks and cream

·         Linguine - Thin, flat pasta

·         Macerate - The action of soaking fruit or vegetables in wine, liquor, or syrup so that they may absorb these flavours

·         Macaroons - Sweet biscuits made of almonds, sugar, (coconut) and egg white

·         Magnetron - The device which generates the microwaves in a microwave oven

·         Magret - The breast from a mallard or duck.

·         Maitre - Master

·         Maitre d’ hotel - used to signify the head waiter

·         Mandolin - Tool for slicing vegetables

·         Marbling - Fat deposited within muscle tissue

·         Marquise - Usually a ganache - based chocolate dessert

·         Marsala - Fortified wine

·         Marzipan - An almond paste with the addition of egg whites

·         Mascarpone - A rich triple cream, fresh cheese from Italy with a texture resembling that of solidified whipped cream.

·         Medallion - Small round cut of meat

·         Mélange - A mixture

·         Mesclun- A mix of very young lettuces and greens (often this mix is stretched with herb or flower sprigs and bitter greens)

·         Mezze - Appetizers

·         Mignon - Small, delicate

·         Mille-Feuille - Small rectangular pastries made of crisp layers of puff pastry and pastry cream. May also include savoury fillings

·         Mirepoix - Roughly chopped onion, carrot, and celery used to flavour stocks and soups. Never served to client

·         Mirin - A non-alcoholic version of sake/rice wine. It is sweet and syrupy

·         Mise en place - Preparation prior to service

·         Mornay - White cheese sauce

·         Mortadella - Large, lightly smoked sausages made of pork, beef, or veal

·         Mouli - A device designed to  puree foods to a fine form by forcing it through fine holes. Used particularly for mash potato.

·         Moussaka - Greek layered dish of eggplant and lamb with tomatoes and onions, covered with béchamel and gratinated

·         Mulligatawny - A curried chicken soup adapted by the British from India. Originally the soup was made with fish stock

·         Muscat - A sweet wine and the grape that produces it

·         Muscatel - A raisin made from such a grape

·         Nasi Goreng - Indonesian fried rice

·         Niacin - Part of vitamin b; found in liver, kidney, meat extract and bacon

·         Noisette - A cut from a boned out loin of lamb tied round

·         Noisette Butter - Butter which has been cooked until it reaches a rich, nutty brown colour and aroma

·         Nori - Sheets of Japanese seaweed used in the making of sushi

·         Nougat - A candy made from sugar and honey mixed with nuts. This mixture is then formed into slabs and sliced

·         Normande- Dishes which contain apple or apple derivatives

·         Oeuf - The French word for egg

·         Offal - Organs or trimmings of meat including brains, heart, liver, kidneys, sweetbread, tail, tongue and tripe

·         Oyster Knife - A small blade used to “shuck” oysters.

·         Paella - A rice dish from Spain, that has shellfish, pork, spicy sausage and saffron

·         Pain - Bread

·         Pak choi- Chinese white cabbage

·         Pakorha - Deep-dried vegetable fritters

·         Pallette Knife - A blunt flexable tool used for applying and mixing icing ect.

·         Pancetta - Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied

·         Pane - Passed through seasoned flour, egg wash and bread crumbs

·         Panna cotta - Cooked-cream Italian dessert similar to bavarois

·         Panzanella - A salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette

·         Pappardelle - Long-flat egg noodles with a crimped edge

·         Paprika - Hungarian sweet red capsicum

·         Parboil - Partially cook in boiling liquid

·         Parfait - Enriched ice-cream made from a sugar, egg yolk and double cream base

·         Paring Knife - a small knife

·         Parisienne scoop - An implement for cutting spheres out of fruit and vegetables

·         Parsons nose - The extreme end of a bird, where the tail feathers grow

·         Pass - To strain or push through a sieve or chinois

·         Paupiette - A stuffed, rolled fillet of fish

·         Penne - Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides

·         Pesto - A paste with fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, pine nuts and parmesan cheese

·         Petit Four - A bite sized cake (or similar) served at the end of a multi-course meal

·         Pilaf - Braised rice

·         Piquant - Sharply flavoured

·         Pita Bread - Flat round bread made with or without a pocket

·         Plat du jour - Speciality of the day

·         Polenta - An Italian dish using coarsely ground cornmeal

·         Poulet - Chicken

·         Poussin - Baby chicken

·         Profiterole - A small round pastry made with choux, filled with sweet paste

·         Prosciutto - The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of parma

·         Pulses - Dried vegetables that grow in pods

·         Purée - A smooth pulp

·         Quenelle - Light dumplings formed into small ovals

·         Radicchio - A lettuce member of the chicory family with red and white leaves

·         Ragout - Stew

·         Raita- Yogurt-based side dish with cucumber

·         Ramekin - Small round moulds

·         Ras el Hanout - Arabic and north African powdered spice mixture with a sweet and pungent flavour

·         Ratatouille - A vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes flavoured with garlic

·         Ravioli - Small, stuffed pasta pockets

·         Reduce - To concentrate a liquid by simmering

·         Refresh - To make cold under running water or plunge into iced water

·         Rémoulade - Classic sauce from mayonnaise mustard, chopped capers and gherkins, herbs and anchovies

·         Risotto - An Italian dish of rice with stock and butter. This may be served as a first course, main course, or side dish

·         Rösti - A Swiss potato pancake made from partially cooked potatoes

·         Roulade - To roll

·         Roux - A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews

·         Sabayon - Egg yolks and wine whisked over simmering water until thick and frothy

·         Saffron - A spice consisting of the dried stigma of the crocus sativus plant, originating in the eastern Mediterranean

·         Salamander - A commercial grill with adjustable heat and distance settings.

·         Salmonella - A pathogen found in meat and especially poultry

·         Salsa - Spanish for sauce, but it tends to refer to a sauce that is used as a dip for finger foods

·         Saltimbocca - Italian dish of thin slices of veal, rolled around ham and cheese, seasoned with sage and braised until tender

·         Samosa - An Indian snack of deep fried stuffed dumplings

·         Sashimi - Japanese dish made from raw fish and served with soy sauce and wasabi

·         Gribiche- Sauce of mayonnaise, capers, gherkins, herbs and hard-boiled egg whites

·         Sauté - To toss in oil and cool lightly

·         Score - To make parallel cuts on surface of food

·         Seal - To brown the surface of meat in a hot oven or pan, to retain colours and juices

·         Season -To flavour usually with salt and pepper

·         Seviche - Spanish raw fish, scallops, prawns marinated till raw “cooked” in citrus juice with onions, peppers and chilli

·         Shiitake - Dark-brown Japanese mushroom with an earthy flavour

·         Short - (Of pastry) having a high fat content

·         Smorgasbord - A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as a full meal service

·         Soba Noodle - Buckwheat noodles resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking

·         Sodium - Mineral found in the form of salt in foods

·         Sorbet - Flavoured water ice, served as a palate refresher between courses

·         Speck - Cured and smoked pork flank

·         Staphylococcus - A pathogen found in the human throat, nose and in septic cuts

·         Stretch It - To make four orders of vinaigrette last through an entire shift by "stretching" with whatever is available and edible.

·         Strudel - Paper thin pastry rolled around sweet fillings of fruit, nuts, or cheese. May also be savoury

·         Studded onion - Peeled onion studded with cloves and bay leaf

·         Succotash - An American dish made from green corn and lima beans

·         Supreme - Boneless breast of chicken

·         Sushi - Japanese of rice, veg and seafood (raw or cooked) rolled in nori and sliced

·         Sweat - To cook without colouring the foods

·         Sweetbread - Thymus or pancreas gland of an animal (those of veal and lamb are most commonly used)

·         Table d’hote - A set menu at a set price

·         Tabbouleh - Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur wheat, tossed with tomatoes, seasoned with lemon and mint

·         Tagliatelle - Flat ribbon pasta, narrower than fettuccine

·         Tahini - A paste made from sesame seeds, used primarily in hummus and baba ganoush

·         Tamarind - Spice from fruit of native indian tree

·         Tandoor - Indian clay oven

·         Tapenade - Paste of capers, black olives, anchovies and garlic

·         Tartare - Mayonnaise based sauce with chopped capers, onion, gherkins and parsley

·         Tartetatin - French tart baked upside-down

·         Tartuffe - Truffle

·         Tempura - A Japanese dish of fried foods in a light batter

·         Teriyaki - Meat or fish marinated in mirin and soy

·         Terrine - An dish used for making pâtés, loafs, etc

·         Tikka - Marinated pieces of meat or fish (Indian)

·         Timbale - Food such as rice or vegetables pressed into a single-portion mould

·         Tiramisu - Italian sponge cake soaked with coffee syrup and layered with mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce

·         Toad in the Hole - Sausages in Yorkshire pudding

·         Tofu - Low fat bean curd made from soya beans

·         Torte - German for round cake or flan

·         Tortellini - Stuffed pasta made from little rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings into a belly button shape

·         Tortilla - A thin Mexican pancake made of cornmeal or flour. They are served both soft and fried

·         Tripe - The stomach of beef, pork, and sheep

·         Truss - To tie meat with metal or wooden pins or skewers, or string, to help meat hold its shape during cooking.

·         Tuilles - Crisp, paper thin biscuits named for their tile-like appearance, often include almond slices, lemon, and vanilla

·         Turmeric - A bright yellow spice used primarily in commercial curry powder

·         Turning Knife - a small knife with a curved blade

·         Tzatziki Sauce - Dipping sauce derived from yoghurt, garlic, cucumber, olive oil and lemon juice.

·         Udon - White Japanese wheat noodles

·         Vegan - A person that eats no animal flesh or animal by-products whatsoever

·         Vegetarian - A person that only eats vegetables and dairy products

·         Velouté - A sauce made from various stock bases thickened with a roux

·         Verjuice - Sour grape or crab apple juice used in place of vinegar

·         Vermicelli - A very fine round noodle which means "small worms", thinner than spaghetti and thicker than angel's hair

·         Vinaigrette - A sauce made from oil, vinegar and chopped herbs

·         Vindaloo - Hot Indian curry

·         Vol-au-Vent - Round puff pastry cases which is filled with savoury fillings

·         Wakame - Japanese seaweed

·         Wasabi - Japanese horseradish, green paste or powder used as a condiment

·         Won ton - Wrappers of Chinese noodle paste similar to ravioli


Coffee Terminology

Cafés are often coming up with creative combinations to call their specialty coffees but here are the most common phrases used behind the coffee machine.

·         Affogatto - A scoop of vanilla ice cream served in a regular size glass with a shot of espresso coffee.

·         Arabica -A type of coffee bean

·         Aroma - The sensation or smell released from brewed coffee. The smell of coffee grounds is referred to as the Bouquet

·         Barista - is the Italian term for the person who operates the espresso brewing equipment at a café or coffee house. When you become proficient at brewing your own espresso drinks, you might regard yourself as an accomplished barista.

·         Bitter - The taste perceived at the back of the tongue. Dark Roasts are intentionally bitter. Over-extraction can cause bitterness.

·         Body - The viscosity or “thickness” of a coffee. Examples of body include light, medium, full, thin, watery, syrupy, heavy, rich and creamy.

·         Caffé Americano - Equal parts espresso and hot water

·         Caffé au lait - French for coffee and milk, a beverage produced by mixing equal parts brewed coffee and steamed milk

·         Caffé Freddo - Chilled espresso served in a glass, often with ice.

·         Cappuccino - Usually equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and frothed milk, often dusted with cocoa.

·         Crema - the blond frothy part of a shot of espresso. Good crema is one of the signs of a good shot

·         Dark Roast - Dark, almost black, with ample amounts of oil present on the surface. Almost, or all origin characteristics are gone, the body is beginning to decrease, the flavour is thin, and usually tastes of the roast, including charcoal, bitter flavours, and very low acidity.

·         Decaffeination - The process by which caffeine is removed from coffee

·         Doppio - A double shot of espresso.

·         Double - Simply 2 shots of Espresso instead of one.

·         Espresso/Short Black - A strong, thick and syrupy shot of coffee brewed by forcing hot water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.

·         Flat white - A shot of espresso in a normal size coffee cup topped up with hot milk.

·         Frappe - Common terminology for an iced, blended beverage. Often containing coffee.

·         Froth - is produced when milk is steamed with an espresso machine’s steaming wand. Air must be introduced into this act to properly froth milk, and this is done by hovering the steam tip right near the surface of the milk: the steam agitates and heats the milk but also draws air at high velocity into the milk, thus creating the foam, or froth. True milk froth should be pourable, not shapeable – you should be able to pour steamed milk and froth, not spoon it out in clumps.

·         Green Coffee - The coffee seed before it is roasted, and after it is processed and dried. This is the form coffee is in when it is purchased by a roasting company.

·         Grind - Crushing the beans in order for use

·         Hopper - The part of a coffee grinder that stores the whole coffee beans

·         Iced Coffee - Just like it sounds. Coffee, cold, and on the rocks.

·         Irish coffee - A coffee spiked with a shot of Irish whisky.

·         Latte - Essentially, a single shot of espresso in milk topped with a little foam. The ratio of milk to coffee should be about 3:1.

·         Light Roast - No oil, usually cinnamon, or a little darker in colour. Lighter body, more flavour of origin and acidity comes through.

·         Long Black- A double shot of espresso with added hot water.

·         Macchiato - A shot of espresso with an added dash of steamed milk to basically 'stain' the coffee.

·         Medium Roast - Very little to no oil present. Milk chocolate in colour, has added depth of body at the cost of some acidity, and possibly at the cost of some origin characteristics.

·         Mocha - Basically a Cappuccino or Latte with an additional chocolate hit.

·         Over Extracted - term used to describe coffee or espresso that has had brew water exposed to ground coffee for too long. Over extracted espresso and coffee can taste bitter or burnt.

·         Percolator - A coffee pot that uses steam pressure to continuously cycle water over the coffee during the brewing process

·         Under Extracted - in coffee and espresso terminology, this refers to a bed of coffee that has not been exposed to enough passing water. The resulting brew is often weak and thin bodied.


Tea Terminology

·     Antioxident - A compound which slows oxidation

·     Astringent - A term describing the dry taste in the mouth left by teas high in unoxidized polyphenols.

·     Billy Tea - An Australian term referring to a tin pot with wire handle to suspend over an open fire in which tea is boiled

·     Black Tea - Green tea leaves that have been oxidized, or fermented, imparting a characteristic reddish brew. The most common type of tea worldwide.

·     Blend - A mixture of teas, usually to promote consistency between growing seasons

·     Bloom - A term describing the sheen of the tea leaf.

·     Brick Tea - Tea leaves that have been steamed and compressed into bricks. Pu-erh is a common brick tea.

·     Caddy - The name given to a tin or jar of tea

·     Caffeine - A stimulating and awakening compound present in tea

·     Cambric Tea - A weak tea infusion with large proportions of milk and sugar.

·     Ceylon tea - Tea from Sri Lanka

·     Choppy - When the tea contains a lot of varying sized leaves

·     Darjeeling Tea - Tea grown in the Darjeeling Hills of India. These teas are renowned for their muscatel flavour.

·     Demitasse - French for half cup, a small mug in which espresso is served

·     Earl Gray - Named after the early 19th century Prime Minister, Charles Grey, this tea is infused with the oil of the bergamot orange. It makes a cup that produces a bitter-citrus yet sweet taste.

·     Earl Grey- a tea blend with a distinctive flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit. Traditionally the term "Earl Grey" was applied only to black tea; however, today the term is used for other teas that contain oil of bergamot, or a flavour.

·     English Breakfast - Another common type of tea, English Breakfast is a strong smoky beverage that will definitely wake your taste buds up! Made from Keenum Chinese black tea, this tea is worth the brewing. Perfect for people who want a breakfast tea with more bite.

·     Fannings - Small particles of tea leaves a grade higher than dust. Used almost exclusively in tea bags.

·     Fermentation - The process of oxidizing green tea leaves to make black and oolong teas.

·     Flowery - A large leaf, typically plucked in second of third flush, with an abundance of tips

·      Formosa Teas - Tea produced in Taiwan, typically oolong teas.

·     Golden Flowery - The tea contains very young tips or buds (which are usually golden in colour) that were picked early in the season.

·     Green Tea - Un-oxidized, dried tea, mostly found in China and Japan but becoming increasing popular in the West due to purported health benefits.

·     High Tea - A meal served late afternoon to early evening which is a mixture of afternoon tea and dinner.

·     Iced Tea - Tea brewed and served chilled

·     Irish Breakfast - This rich tasting tea is usually a blend of Assam and Ceylon black tea varieties. It brews a dark-reddish cup that gives off a medium aroma and has a brisk malty taste with slightly bitter undertones.

·     Jasmine - Green or Oolong Tea scented with jasmine flowers.

·     Oolong tea - a semi-fermented tea, combining the best qualities of green tea and black tea. Oolong tea is not only as clear and fragrant as green tea, but also as refreshing and strong as black tea. It natural aroma would linger in your mouth and make your throat much comfortable.

·     Orange Pekoe - The larger leaves of the tea plant. Does not refer to flavour characteristics of any tea.

·     Orthodox - A processing method that imitates the larger leaf styles of hand-produced teas.

·     Pekoe - A term used to describe the largest leaves used to produce whole leaf teas. Also refers to an un-distinctive blend of tea. Pronounced ‘pek-o’.

·     Rolling - The process by which withered leaves are rolled to initiate enzymic oxidation

·     Scented Tea - Teas that have been flavoured by adding flower petals, fruits spices and/or natural oils.

·     Tannin - A term referring to the astringent polyphenols of tea, producing a bitter flavour.

·     Theanine - An amino acid unique to tea.

·     Tippy - The tea contains an abundance of tips

·     White - A type of very light green tea; the term refers to the white hairs on the picked tea bud.

·     Withering - The operation which removes moisture from the recently plucked leaves making them less brittle and preparing them for further processing. Generally done by spreading leaves allowing the air to pass over.


Wine Terminology

·         Acidity - Acidic components give wine its longevity, but they need to be present in balance with other components of the wine. Acidity forms a vital part of the "structure" of the wine.

·         Alcohol - The end product of fermentation; technically ethyl alcohol resulting from the interaction of natural grape sugars and yeast; generally above 12.5% in dry table wines

·         Balance - refers to the harmonious presence of different elements in wine: sweetness, acidity, fruit, tannins and alcohol, such that no single element dominates.

·         Blend - Combining two or more grape varieties, vintages or locations to create balance, increase quality or maintain consistency

·         Bordeaux - A city on the Garonne River in southwest France; a large wine-producing region with more than a dozen subregions; a red wine made mostly from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc; a white wine made from Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon.

·         Bouquet - the smell given off by a wine when the bottle is opened. It arises from the slow oxidation of alcohol and fruit acids into esters and ethers.

·         Breathe - What a wine will do once you open a bottle and expose the wine to air. In older wines it will allow for off-flavours to dissipate however, modern winemaking hygiene is making this process unnecessary. This is more necessary for young wines as they are very often taut and closed and will benefit by the process of sloshing a wine into a decanter and leaving it for a while before drinking.

·         Brut - A French term used to describe the driest Champagnes.

·         Burgundy - A prominent French wine region stretching from Chablis in the north to Lyons in the south; Pinot Noir is the grape for red Burgundy, Chardonnay for white

·         Cabernet Sauvignon - A major variety of red (or black) grape, considered by many to produce the finest red wines in the world. It is the classic centrepiece of the clarets of the Médoc in Bordeaux. Widely grown in most areas of Australia.

·         Cabernet Sauvignon - A powerful, tannic red grape of noble heritage; the base grape for many red Bordeaux and most of the best red wines from California, Washington, Chile and South Africa; capable of aging for decades.

·         Cellar - A cellar or cave is a place of storage for wine. Usually underground where the temperature can be maintained at constant levels. 14-15c is the preferred temperature for wines.

·         Cellarmaster - the manager or "the Chief" of a cellar.

·         Chablis - A town and wine region east of Paris known for steely, minerally Chardonnay.

·         Champagne - A denominated region northeast of Paris in which Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier grapes are made into sparkling wine.

·         Chardonnay - Arguably the best and most widely planted white wine grape in the world.

·         Château - French for “castle;” an estate with its own vineyards.

·         Chenin Blanc - A white grape common in the Loire Valley of France.

·         Claret - An English name for red Bordeaux.

·         Claret - What the red wines similar to those of Bordeaux in France were commonly called until recent years whereby mimicking French wines has been outlawed.

·         Corked - Corked (or cork taint) describes a wine whose quality is affected by an off-flavour from the cork. It is perceived as a mouldy, 'rotten wood' smell and sometimes bitter taste. About 3% of wines worldwide are affected.

·         Crisp - a complimentary term for white wine with refreshing acidity.

·         Crust - the heavy sediment, which forms in a wine

·         Cuvé - Large Vat or Tank, which wine, is fermented.

·         Cuvée - The entire contents of a Cuvé made at any one time

·         Decant - The process of transferring wine from a bottle to another holding vessel. The purpose is generally to aerate a young wine or to separate an older wine from any sediment

·         Dessert Wine - A sweet or fortified wine.

·         Dry - A wine containing no more than 0.2 percent unfermented sugar.

·         Esters - compounds of alcohol and organic acids that give flavours and bouquet to a wine.

·         Fermentation - The process by which sugar is transformed into alcohol; how grape juice interacts with yeast to become wine.

·         Flat - Used by wine experts to describe a wine that is lifeless, dull and boring

·         Flute - A narrow glass with straight sides used for champagne.

·         Fortified Wine - A wine in which brandy is introduced during fermentation; sugars and sweetness are high due to the suspended fermentation.

·         Gewürztraminer - A sweet and spicy white grape popular in eastern France, Germany, Austria, northern Italy and California.

·         Glycerol - A colourless, sweet-tasting substance which can add to the "impression" of body in a wine

·         Goon - Cask wine

·         Green - A term used to describe under ripe, vegetal flavours in a wine.

·    Grenache - A hearty, productive red grape popular in southern France as well as in Spain, where it is called Garnacha.

·         Labrusca - Grape types native to North America such as Concord and Catawba

·         Legs - A term used to describe how wine sticks to the inside of a wineglass after drinking or swirling.

·         Magnum - A bottle equal to two regular 750ml bottles.

·         Malbec - A grape variety once important in Bordeaux. A small amount is grown in Australia.

·         Maturity - The period in a wines life that can be described "after youth but before its decline". It can be 3 years or 3 decades depending on the wine. Mature is a complimentary term as opposed to old or faded.

·         Merlot - A lauded red grape popular in Bordeaux and throughout the world; large amounts of Merlot exist in Italy, the United States, South America and elsewhere

·         Merlot - Premium red-grape variety, usually blended with other reds (such as Cabernet Sauvignon). Widely grown in France and used as a blend in Bordeaux and other areas. Can lend a pleasing 'velvety' texture and agreeably fruity flavours to a red-wine blend. Increasingly popular as a single varietal wine.

·         Must - Crushed grape berries with the storks and stems removed

·         Nose - Synonymous with bouquet; the sum of a wine’s aromas.

·         Oaky - A term used to describe woody aromas and flavours; butter, popcorn and toast notes are found in “oaky” wines. Describes a wine that smells and/or tastes of oak

·         Oxidised - Wine that has been exposed to air has become stale and flat. It usually takes on a strong acetic acid (vinegar) smell.

·         Perfumed - A perfumed wine has lots of smell, usually of a slightly musky sort. This is typically a white wine term.

·         Pinot Blanc - A white grape popular in Alsace, Germany and elsewhere.

·         Pinot Gris - Also called Pinot Grigio, this is a grayish-purple grape that yields a white wine with a refreshing character.

·         Pinot Noir - The classic red grape of Burgundy, and one of the varieties that helps make champagne in France. Generally produces lighter styles of red wine, though can (when well made) have intense and deep flavours.

·         Plonk - A derogatory name for cheap, poor-tasting wine.

·         Port - A sweet, fortified wine made in the Douro Valley of Portugal and aged in the coastal town of Vila Nova de Gaia; variations include Vintage, Tawny, Late Bottled Vintage, Ruby, White and others.

·         Riesling - Along with Chardonnay, one of the top white grapes in the world; most popular in Germany, Alsace and Austria.

·         Riesling - Riesling is a grape from the Rhine area of Germany and is one of the world's classic grapes. A grossly underestimated and misunderstood variety that still makes, and always will make, some of the finest Australian white wines. Also known as Rhine Riesling.

·         Rosé - French for “pink,” and used to describe a category of refreshing wines that are pink in colour but are made from red grapes.

·         Sauternes - A sweet Bordeaux white wine made from botrytized Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc.

·         Sauvignon Blanc - A white grape planted throughout the world; increasingly the signature wine of New Zealand.

·         Sémillon - A plump white grape popular in Bordeaux and Australia; the base for Sauternes.

·         Sherry - A fortified wine from a denominated region in southwest Spain; styles include fino, Manzanilla, oloroso and amontillado.

·         Shiraz - The Australian name for Syrah; also used in South Africa and sparingly in the U.S.

·         Sommelier - Technically a wine steward, but one potentially with a great degree of wine knowledge as well as a diploma of sorts in wine studies.

·         Sauvignon Blanc - Sauvignon Blanc is a white-grape variety from Bordeaux and the Loire areas of France, where it makes superb sweet and dry white wine. Its grassy/steely and sometimes asparagus-like character attracts either love or loathing. Do try a good one or two, because it is different. Sometimes blended with Semillon.

·         Semillon - a great French (especially Bordeaux) white-grape variety. Usually makes dry, sometimes wood-matured, full-bodied whites in Australia, notably in the Hunter Valley.

·         Sharp - Sharp is a term to describe the acid taste on the palate. Not necessarily unpleasant.

·         Shiraz - Versatile Australian red-grape variety, also widely referred to (especially on old labels) as hermitage. Makes some excellent and often reasonably priced red wines in most areas, and is best known for its parentage of Penfolds Grange.

·         Sparkling Wine - Champagne

·         Tannins - Phenolic compounds that exist in most plants; in grapes, tannins are found primarily in the skins and pits; tannins are astringent and provide structure to a wine; over time tannins die off, making wines less harsh.

·         Tokay - A dessert wine made in Hungary from dried Furmint grapes.

·         Vintage - The period of picking or harvesting grapes each year, as in 'the vintage'; also the year a wine was made or 'vintaged'

·         Wine - The fermented juice of grapes becomes wine.

·         Yield - The amount of grapes picked (or wines made) from a given area


Beer Terminology

·         Alcohol - A by-product of fermentation. It is produced when yeast consumes the fermentable sugars. Alcohol is what causes intoxication

·         Alcohol By Volume (ABV) - The measure of the amount of space the alcohol in a beer takes up as a percentage of total volume. This is the worldwide standard for measuring the alcohol content in beer. The United States traditionally used alcohol by weight (ABW) to measure alcohol content, but more and more American brewers are now adopting ABV.

·         Alcohol By Weight - The measure of the weight of alcohol as a percentage of total weight of the liquid. This standard is being used much less frequently nowadays. To convert ABW to ABV, multiply the ABW x 1.25. Conversely, to get the ABW from ABV multiply the ABV x 0.8.

·         Ales - These are top fermented beers - in contrast to lagers, which are bottom-fermented. There is an infinite variety of flavours within the ale category, but most will display caramel flavours, varying degrees of hoppy bitterness, as well as fruity aromas. The ale category includes bitter, mild, brown ales, Scottish and Irish ales as well as a variety of European and American ales. 

·         Aroma Hops - Hops added at the end of the boil that add to the aroma of the beer

·         Balthazar - A bottle, 12 litres in capacity.

·         Barley - A cereal grain that is malted and used in the mash for making beer.

·         Barrel - A unit of measurement used by brewers in some countries. In Britain, a barrel holds 36 imperial gallons (1 imperial gallon = 4.5 litres), or 1.63 hectoliters. In the United States, a barrel holds 31.5 US gallons (1 US gallon = 3.8 litres), or 1.17 hectoliters.

·         Beer - A low alcohol beverage brewed from malted barley mixed with cultured yeast for fermentation and flavoured with hops. There are many varieties of beer including Ale, Stout, Porter and America's favourite, Lager. Beer adds character and flavour to many foods from bread to stew.

·         Bitter - A sharp, tangy sensation that comes from hops in beer.

·         Bittering Hops - Hops added to the boil with 45 – 60 minutes left. These are responsible for the bitterness of a beer.

·         Brown ale - A British-style, top-fermented beer which is lightly hopped and flavoured with roasted and caramel malt.

·         Bung - A wooden plug for a beer barrel.

·         Cane sugar - Sucrose, or white table sugar is a highly fermentable sugar, usually refined from sugar cane or sugar beets. In brewing, cane sugar is sometimes used as an adjunct because it is cheaper than malt. It lightens the colour and body of the beer, boosts the alcohol content, and can add a cidery taste that is considered not true beer flavour.

·         Carbon Dioxide - What the bubbles in your beer are made of, and occurs naturally as a by-product of fermentation.

·         Carbonation - Refers to the amount of CO2 in a beer

·         Cask - A container for beer that is sealed. They can be wood or metal.

·         Chocolate malt - Malted barley that has been roasted to a deep brown colour. It gives a nutty, toasted flavour to beers as well as deep reddish brown colour.

·         Cider - Fermented beverage made from apples.

·         Craft beer - Beers made by small, independent brewers with only traditional brewing ingredients such as malt, hops, yeast and water, and brewed with traditional brewing methods.

·         Double Magnum - A bottle, 3.0 litres in capacity.

·         Draught - Beer that is served from the cask, keg or barrel. Draught can be pasteurized, filtered or cask-conditioned, but bottled or canned beer is not, by definition, draught. The word means “drawn” or pulled from the cask by a pump

·         Dry beer - In the late 80′s, Asahi Brewery of Japan refined a brewing process that fermented virtually all the sugars in their beer. Described as having less aftertaste, it actually had almost no taste at all. It sold well, though, so major breweries around the world began brewing “Dry Beers” of their own

·         Dry Hopping - The addition of dry hops during first or secondary fermentation to add a hoppy character to the beer without affecting the beers bitterness.

·         Dry stout - The Irish version of stout, slightly more bitter and higher in alcohol than the English sweet stout.

·         Estery - Aroma or flavour or fruit or flowers in beer. This can be caused by certain yeast strains or higher temperature fermentation.

·         Ethanol or Ethyl Alcohol - Colourless liquid at room temperature. It has a boiling point of 78°C and freezes at -114°C at 1 atmosphere. It is intoxicating and flammable. This is the alcohol in alcoholic beverages.

·         Fermentation - The reaction of the yeast consuming the sugars in wort in the case of beer. This process creates ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

·         Final Gravity - The weight of a beer after fermentation.

·         Flute - Typically seen with champagne. Beer flutes have shorter stems than champagne flutes. The mouth has a smaller diameter than the mid section to hold in carbonation.

·         Full Strength - Usually ranging between 4.5 - 6 percent alcohol by volume.

·         Goblet - Goblets can resemble a fishbowl. Typically they have a round bowl and come in various sizes. They are somewhat like a brandy or cognac snifter. Use these for high alcohol sipping beers.

·         Half Pint - 285ml (10oz) glass

·         Handle - 285ml (10oz) glass popular in Vic and NT

·         Heavy - A full strength beer

·         Hops - Hops come from the HumulisLupulus plant or vine. It is the female flower that is used in brewing. They come in several forms, whole, pellet and plug. Hops are what make beer bitter. There are volumes written on hops, if you are interested, there is plen

·         Hops - The dried blossom of the female hop plant, which is a climbing herb (Humuluslupulus). Hops closest relative is the cannabis plant from which marijuana is derived. Only the seed cones from the female vine are used in making beer. Hops are responsible for the bitterness in beer.

·         Hydrometer - A device that measures specific gravity (SG) of a liquid. Hydrometers are usually calibrated for measurements at 60°F. If what you are measuring is not at this temperature, you should use a hydrometer correction table. Approximately the correction amount is (Temperature-1.8)x.03 (e.g. (77°F-1.8) x .03 = 2.2 take the FG and add 2.2 to get the calibrated SG)

·         Jug - 1125ml (20oz) jug

·         Keg - A large metal (stainless steel) vessel that contains beer. They come in several sizes, 2.5 gallon, 5 gallon, 7.75 gallon and 15.5 gallon. Import kegs are usually 13.2 gallons (50 litres).

·         Kolsch - Looks like a cylinder. The kolsch glass has straight sides and is tall. Holds 12 oz.

·         Lager - Beer made with bottom fermenting yeast. Lager is fermented at lower temperatures and usually takes longer to ferment than ales. Since the fermentation is at low temperatures, the yeast by-products are reduced and a cleaner more crisp beer is the result.

·         Lauter- To drain the wort to the mash tun.

·         Light - Typically 2.5 - 3 percent alcohol by volume.

·         Liquor - The brewer’s word for water used in the brewing process, as included in the mash or, used to sparge the grains after mashing.

·         Malt - Grain that has been malted.  The malting process consists of wetting the grain and allowing it to germinate. During the germination, some of the starches in the grain get converted to sugars while others become simple soluble starches and other enzymes. The grain is then dried and tumbled to knock the beginnings of roots off. The grain is then kilned to dry it thoroughly and caramelise some of the sugars like in crystal malt or blacken it like a black patent malt.

·         Malt Extract - Sweet wort that has been reduced to a syrupy liquid or dried into a powder.

·         Malt Liquor - A legal term in the U.S. for fermented beverages with alcohol that is higher than normal – or around 7-8%.

·         Mash - Release of sugars from grains into water. The mixture resulting from mashing.

·         Microbrewery - A brewery that produces less than 15,000 barrels per year

·         Mid strength - Usually around 3.5 percent alcohol by volume.

·         Middy - A 285ml (10oz)glass popular in NSW and WA

·         Nebuchadnezzar - A bottle, 15 litres in capacity.

·         Oktoberfest - A traditional autumn beer festival held in Munich, Germany every October, however, it is now celebrated worldwide.

·         Oxygenation - The addition of oxygen in the wort. This is done to help provide the yeast with oxygen for a healthy fermentation.

·         Pale Ale - an amber coloured ale brewed with pale malts; similar to bitter but drier and lighter.

·         Pasteurization - Heating food or liquid to high temperatures to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. This also kills yeast. Developed by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

·         Pilsner - A beer style. Typically crisp and refreshing, with a light to medium body and a clear, light to deep gold appearance.

·         Pint - 20oz glass

·         Pitching - The process of adding yeast to the wort in the fermentation tank.

·         Pony - 140ml (5oz) glass

·         Porters and stouts - Porter and stout are almost black in colour and have a highly roasted taste. They have hints of chocolate and caramel and intense fruitiness.

·         Pot - 285ml (10oz) glass

·         Schooner - A 425ml (15oz) glass.

·         Scotch Ale - A top-fermented beer of Scottish origin. Traditionally strong, very dark, thick and creamy.

·         Stein - is an abbreviation of the German word Steingut, the common material for beer mugs before the introduction of glass. These days, typical steins are very solid glasses of approximately 1 litre.

·         Stout - A dark beer made using roasted malts. Most Australian breweries produce stouts but these are not as popular as lagers.

·         Ten - 285ml (10oz) glass served in Tasmania

·         Terminal Gravity - The specific gravity of the wort after fermentation has ended. Sometimes called final gravity.

·         Wheat beers - Wheat beers, brewed mainly in Germany and Belgium, are also known as ‘wit' or ‘weiss' because of their very pale colour. Unlike most beer styles, where clarity is desirable, wheat beers are intentionally cloudy. They are zesty, low in bitterness and may contain notes of orange peel, coriander, clove or banana.

·         Wort - Created by mashing, wort is liquid malt extract that is ready for the fermentation tank where yeast will be added. It’s beer before it becomes beer. After you boil the ingredients together that mixture is called wort.

·         Yard Glass - As the name suggests – it is about 3 feet long. They are awkward and can be quite fragile. They hold almost 3 pints. They also come in half yards.

·         Yeast - Yeast is what makes the alcohol in beer. Yeast eats the sugars in the wort and gives of alcohol and carbon dioxide.Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is used to make ales and Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis is used to make lagers.

·         Zymurgy - The science of fermentation.


Drinks Terminology

·         Absinthe - A bitter, green or yellow alcoholic drink flavoured with wormwood.

·         Advocaat - Liqueur from the Netherlands, made of brandy, egg yolks, vanilla and sugar.

·         Alcopop - A name for typical pre-mix drinks such as vodka, lemonade and raspberry.

·         Amaretto - A liqueur made from apricot pits, with an almond flavour.

·         Aperitif - an alcoholic drink served before a meal to stimulate the appetite

·         Applejack - A brandy distilled from apple cider.

·         B-52 - A layered shot of Kahlua, Baileys and Cointreu.

·         Bacardi 151 Black Bat Rum - A well-known brand of rum, flavourful, smooth and rich in taste.

·         Bacardi Breezer - Bottled cocktail with a rum base produced by Bacardi.

·         Bacardi Limon - A well-known brand of rum flavoured with citrus.

·         Bacardi Rum - A well-known brand of white rum originating from Puerto Rico.

·         Bailey's Irish Cream - A brand of Irish Cream, made of Irish whiskey blended with fresh cream, spirits and a little chocolate.

·         Beer - An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt and hops.

·         Benedictine - A brandy-based liqueur with a secret herb formula produced by Benedictine monks in France and in Spain.

·         Bitters - A strong flavoured alcoholic drink flavoured with bitter herb essences

·         Black Russian - a cocktail of vodka and coffee liqueur.

·         Bloody Mary - a popular cocktail containing vodka, tomato juice, and usually other spices or flavourings such as Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco sauce, beef consommé or bouillon, horseradish, celery, olive, salt, black pepper, cayenne pepper, lemon juice, and celery salt. It has been called "the world's most complex cocktail."

·         Blue Curacao - A liqueur made from white Curacao and blue colouring.

·         Bourbon Whiskey - Bourbon Whiskey is America's only native spirit. It is distilled from a minimum of 51% corn and a blend of barley and rye or wheat. For a product to be called 'bourbon" it must be produced in Bourbon County. That is what makes it different from sour mash whisky. The bourbon county that matters is the old Bourbon county. When you see a label that says "Old Bourbon" it is referring to the old county and not the age of the drink. The old Bourbon county encompasses about 30 plus modern counties.

·         Brandy - An alcoholic spirit distilled from fermented fruits usually bottled at 80 proof.

·         Bundaberg Rum - A rum producer from Queensland, Australia.

·         Cabernet - A type of red wine, high in tannin and medium to full bodied with a distinctive flavour of blackcurrant. Also called Cabernet Sauvignon.

·         Calvados - A brandy distilled from apple cider, produced only in the French region of Normandy.

·         Campari - A bright red type of orange bitters named after its Italian inventor.

·         Canadian Club - A brand of blended whisky.40 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Cassis - A blackcurrant liqueur

·         Cement Mixer - Baileys and lime juice. When placed in the mouth the mixture will curdle.

·         Chambord - A well-know brand of blackberry liqueur.

·         Champagne - 1. The most refined sparkling wine, produced only in the Champagne region of France. 2. The region where the champagne is made. Only champagne made in Champagne should be called 'champagne'. On some other similar sparkling wines you may find 'methodechampenoise', thus meaning that the wine does not come from the Champagne region, but that it was produced following the method used in Champagne.

·         Chartreuse - A pale green or yellow liqueur made from brandy and aromatic herbs.

·         Chaser - A beverage consumed right after taking a shot

·         Cider - An alcoholic drink made from the fermentation of apple juice. You can have different varieties (strong, dry, medium, sweet), each having a different alcohol content.

·         Claret - Common name given to the red wines of the Bordeaux wine region in France.

·         Cocksucking Cowboy - A layered shooter of 2 parts Butterscotch Schnapps and 1 part Baileys.

·         Cocktail - A mixed drink produced with spirits and one or more other ingredient

·         Cognac - a brandy produced in the Cognac region of France

·         Cointreau - A liqueur made from brandy and orange peel.

·         Cola - The name of a sweet, brown carbonated soda, made from a blend of essence and herbs.

·         Cooler - a beverage produced by combining wine and fruit juices

·         Cosmopolitan - a cocktail made with vodka, Triple Sec, cranberry juice, and fresh-squeezed lime juice or sweetened lime juice.

·         Crème de Cacao - A liqueur made from cocoa beans and flavoured with cocoa. Between 25-30 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Crème de Cassis - A blackcurrant liqueur made from both infusion and maceration methods; Between 18-25 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Crème de Menthe - A peppermint-flavoured liqueur that can be found colourless or green; 30 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Crown Royal - A brand of blended De Luxe Canadian Whisky

·         Curacao - An orange flavoured liqueur made from dried bitter orange peel.

·         Daiquiri - a family of cocktails whose main ingredients are rum, lime juice, and sugar or other sweetener. It can also be blended into a frozen daiquiri.

·         Dark Rum - Aged rum, sometimes coloured with caramel.

·         Distillation - a process in which a liquid is heated and the vapours are collected and condensed

·         Dry - A drink or alcohol that lacks sweetness.

·         Dry Gin - A type of gin, light in flavour but the aroma is still good.

·         Dry Martini - Well-known brand name for an Italian vermouth.

·         Dry Vermouth - A type of dry vermouth.

·         Eggnog - a beverage made out of dairy, beaten eggs, liquor, and sugar

·         Espresso - Coffee made by forcing steam through the coffee grounds rather than the traditional boiling water method. There is also a liqueur called Espresso produced by Stock S.P.A. from Italy at 54 proof.

·         Frangelico - A liqueur made of hazelnuts and an infusion of berries and flowers. 24 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Galliano - A liqueur flavoured with herbs, roots and spices made in Italy. 35 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Gewurztraminer - A delicious medium to dry white wine high in sugar but low in acid.

·         Gin - An alcoholic drink distilled from malted grain and flavoured with juniper berries. Invented by a Dutch chemist in the 17th century as a remedy it was brought to England and developed there as a favourite liquor for the working class.

·         Ginger Ale - In Britain it's a non-alcoholic fizzy drink flavoured with ginger or essence of ginger and coloured with caramel. In North America it's a non-alcoholic, lemon-flavoured fizzy drink.

·         Ginger Beer - A drink made by the fermentation of root ginger, sugar, water and yeast with a very low alcohol content.

·         Ginger Wine - A wine with a grape base to which ginger, spices, herbs and fruits have been added.

·         Gomme Syrup - A type of syrup used to sweeten cocktails.

·         Grand Marnier - A cognac based liqueur flavoured with orange peel

·         Grappa - 1. The name of an Italian brandy made from the stalks of grapes. It can be found in 4 main categories: Young, aged, aromatic and flavoured (of course numerous variations exist in these categories). 2. A liquor distilled from cane sugar, flavoured with aniseed and made in South America.

·         Green Ginger Wine - A type of wine produced in England, made from dried grapes, pure root ginger and aged for 9 months.

·         Grenadine - A non-alcoholic red syrup often used for colouring in cocktails. Also adds a bit of sugar in harsh drinks.

·         Guinness - A very famous stout coming from Ireland

·         Hibiscus - A tropical flowering plant often used in champagne.

·         Hot Toddy a mixed drink made of liquor and water with sugar and spices and served hot. 

·         Irish Cream - A smooth, creamy, light brown liqueur with a whiskey base.

·         Irish Whiskey - A whiskey made from malted cereals, barley, water and yeast. It is passed through the still 3 times (therefore has a high alcohol level), blended and aged minimum 5 years in used Sherry casks.

·         Jack Daniel's Whiskey - A sour mash whiskey made in Tennessee, USA. 45 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Jagerbomb - a cocktail that is mixed by dropping a shot of Jägermeister into a glass of Red Bull

·         Jagermeister - A dark red herb liqueur made in Germany. It's a hunter's favourite in Europe.

·         Jamaica Rum - A dark rum made from molasses.

·         Jameson's Irish Whiskey - A type of Irish whiskey, matured in American oak barrels.

·         Jim Beam Bourbon Whiskey - The name of a sour mash bourbon made in Kentucky, USA.

·         Johnnie Walker Scotch - Any scotch whisky produced by John Walker and Sons. There are different sorts  like Johnnie Black, Johnnie Walker Red, Johnnie Walker Blue, etc.

·         Jose Cuervo - Name of a famous producer of tequila.

·         Kahlua - A coffee liqueur produced in Mexico. 26 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Kirsch - Kirsh is a white brandy distilled from cherries and usually aged in a paraffin lined cask to prevent it from taking on the colour of the wood. It is also another name for cherry schnapps.

·         Lambrusco - A red and sparkling wine made from the lambrusco grape and mainly produced in Italy.

·         Lemonchello - A brand of Italian lemon cordial.

·         London Dry Gin - 1. A brand of very dry gin made around London. 2. Any very dry gin.

·         Long Island Iced Tea - a highball made with, among other ingredients, vodka, gin, tequila, and white rum.

·         Mace - Spice made from the dried outer casting of the nutmeg.

·         Madeira - A fortified wine produced in the island of Maderia, a possession of Portugal. The wine is aged between 4 to 6 months in casks in a very warm chamber.

·         Malibu Rum - A coconut flavoured rum, 28 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Manhattan - A cocktail made of whiskey and vermouth.

·         Margarita - A cocktail made with tequila and citrus fruit juice.

·         Martini - A cocktail made from gin and dry vermouth

·         Mescal - Also spelt mezcal, it's a spirit distilled like tequila, but of much inferior quality, because the cactus used to obtain the sap is not the famous blue agave.

·         Midori - The brand name of a famous bright green musk melon liqueur. 30 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Mojito - A cocktail consisting of white rum, lime or lemon juice, sugar, mint, ice, and carbonated or soda water.

·         Muscat Wine - A very flavourfull wine, made with the Muscat grape, a small type of grape that can be very sweet.

·         Neat - Drink served without ice or mixer

·         Nightcap - A wine or liquor taken before bedtime.

·         Nip - 30ml shot.

·         On-the-rocks - Served over cubes of ice in an old-fashioned glass

·         Ouzo - Greek aperitif with a strong anise flavour. 40 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Pernod - anise-based liquor made in France.

·         Pina Colada - A cocktail made with rum, pineapple juice, and coconut.

·         Pink Champagne - 1. A Champagne rose made in the Champagne region of France. 2. In the USA, any type of pink sparkling wine made by the "methodechampenoise"

·         QF - Stands for Quick F**k. A layered shot of Midori, Baileys, and Kahlua.

·         Riesling - A dry white wine high in acid but low in alcohol.

·         Rum - An alcoholic liquor distilled from sugar-cane residues or molasses

·         Rye Whiskey - A whiskey made from a mash that contains a minimum of 51% rye, and that is aged in new oak barrels.

·         Sake - A beer made from rice and originating from Osaka, Japan.

·         Sambuca - A liqueur produced by the infusion of Witch elder bush and liquorice. It can be flavoured with sweet anise and now can be found in different varieties. It is similar to Anisette but has a higher alcoholic level and is less sugary.

·         Sangria - A beverage originating from Spain. It is made with red wine, sugar and fruits, and is garnished with fresh fruits and berries. There are lots of recipes to make sangria, but there should always be red wine and fruits

·         Schnapps - Another name for spirit, usually implying quite a strong alcohol content.

·         Scotch - A term used to designate whisky made in Scotland.

·         Sherry - Name given to the fortified wines produced in Andalusia (Spain)

·         Shooter - Usually a miked or layered shot of two or more ingredients.

·         Single Malt Scotch Whisky - A whisky that is brewed from a single batch of wort. Also a whisky from one particular distillery. There are more than a hundred distilleries in Scotland, each producing their own, distinctive Single Malt.

·         Slippery Nipple - A shooter consisting of Sambuca and Baileys.

·         Smirnoff Vodka - A famous brand of vodka that was originally produced in Poland, but that is now made in the UK and in the USA. It comes in different varieties and flavours.

·         Sparkling Wine - A wine containing a large amount of carbon dioxide, the source of the beverage's bubbles, so that pressure inside the bottle rises to several atmospheres. There are four ways of putting the CO2 in the bottle: the methodechampenoise injection, the cuve close method or the Charmat (a type of cuve close method).

·         Stolichnaya Vodka - The most popular Russian vodka, also called the vodka of Moscow, it comes in many different flavours. Stolichnaya Cinnamon Vodka, Stolichnaya Coffee Vodka, Stolichnaya Lemon Vodka, Stolichnaya Orange Vodka, Stolichnaya Peach Vodka, Stolichnaya Pepper Vodka, Stolichnaya Raspberry Vodka, Stolichnaya Strawberry Vodka, Stolichnaya Vanilla Vodka. 40 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Stout - Dark, strong English beer.

·         Tawny Port - Golden, blended port, produced in Portugal, that has been aged in casks for at least 6 years.

·         Tennesse Whiskey - A type of whisky that is produced like Bourbon, but which is mellowed before being stocked in barrels. It has thus a smoky sweetness, and is considered by law as a separate category of whiskey.

·         Tequila - A spirit that is only produced in two region of Mexico and that is made from a minimum of 51% of distilled blue agave sap.

·         Tequila Slammer - Place a little salt on the back of your hand, lick the salt, down a large dose of straight tequila and then bite into a lemon.

·         Tequilla Sunrise - A cocktail containing tequila, orange juice, and grenadine.

·         Tia Maria - A rum-based coffee liqueur produced in Jamaica. 26.5 per cent alcohol by volume.

·         Vermouth - wine flavoured with herbs, spices, barks and flowers. Can be found in different varieties (red, white, dry, sweet, etc.), and is produced mainly in France and Italy. The most common herbs and spices used to make vermouth are: angelica, bitter orange, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, gentian, hyssop, marjoram, sage and thyme.

·         Virgin - refers to a beverage that does not contain alcohol

·         Vodka - A clear alcoholic spirit originating in Russia, made from grain.

·         Whiskey - A spirit made by distilling fermented cereals then aged in oak barrels. Note that Canadian whisky is spelled without the "e”

··       White Curacao - A liqueur made with wine or grape spirit, sugar and peel from oranges grown on the island of Curacao

·         White Russian - a cocktail of vodka, coffee liqueur and cream.

·         Wild Turkey - The brand name of a bourbon whiskey and a bourbon-based liqueur produced in the USA.


Bar and Restaurant Terminology

·         á la carte - Menu where dishes are prepared to order and priced individually

·         Appetiser - Food that is served first and is offered to arouse the appetite

·         Back of House- Refers to the area of a restaurant that guests are not allowed. The kitchen, dishwashing area and wait station are all located in the back of the house.

·         Bamix - a stick blender

·         Banquet menus - Pre-planned menus for large groups of guests

·         Booking - A confirmed arrangement at an establishment

·         Buffet service - Guests select their meals from an attractive arrangement of food on long serving tables

·         Busser - An employee of the restaurant who assists the server in serving the menu items and clearing soiled dishware, as well as cleaning and resetting tables

·         Cambro - A large “esky” used to keep trays of food hot.

·         Canapé - a small, prepared and usually decorative food, held in the fingers

·         Carafe - An open-topped glass flask typically used for serving wine or water

·         Chafing Dish- A metal dish that is filled with water and kept warm with a candle or fuel cell underneath. These are typically used on buffets.

·         Cobbler - A tall drink of any liquor served in a collins or highball glass with shaved or crushed ice and garnished with fresh fruit and mint sprigs.

·         Cocktail Shaker - a shaker for mixing cocktails

·         Cogs - Cost Of Goods - The daily, weekly, monthly or yearly total dollar amount of all inventoried items that have been used in the restaurant.

·         Continental Breakfast - A breakfast, typically consisting of coffee, bread and condiments, cereal, fruit and pastries.

·         Corkage - A restaurant fee charged for opening and serving a bottle of wine brought in by the patron.

·         Course - A serving such as entree, main or dessert.

·         Covers - Number of guests

·         Degustation - Several small courses (usually seven) served after each other.

·         Dessert - The sweet course eaten at the end of a meal

·         Entree - Typically a small meal before the main course.

·         FIFO - First in, First out. Refers to the rotation of goods.

·         Front of House- Refers to the area of a restaurant where guests are allowed. The dining room and bar are all in the front of the house.

·         Glassie - Usually refers to an employee that would collect glasses and rubbish at a pub/niteclub.

·         HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

·         Highball Glass - A straight-sided glass tumbler which will contain 8 to 12 fluid ounces (240 to 350 ml). It is used to serve highball cocktails and other mixed drinks.

·         Hors dourves - An appetiser

·         Host/Hostess-The person who meets the guests and shows them to their table. The host is also responsible for keeping track of reservations and waiting lines.

·         Hurricane Glass - A tall, elegantly cut glass named after it's hurricane-lamp-like shape, used for exotic/tropical drinks

·         Kosher foods - Foods permitted to be eaten by people of the Jewish faith who observe kosher dietary law

·         Main Course - The most substantial course of a meal

·         Maitre d’ - used to signify the head waiter

·         Martini Glass - a stemmed glass which has a cone-shaped bowl placed upon a stem above a flat base.

·         Old Fashioned Glass - The Old Fashioned glass, lowball glass, or rocks glass is a short tumbler used for serving an alcoholic beverage, such as whisky.

·         Pax - Number of guests

·         Plating - Putting the food on the plate is referred to plating. This includes adding any sauce or garnish before handing over to the server.

·         POS System - A point of sale system is a computer system that helps businesses track sales. It also tracks employee sales (who sold the most during a shift) and which dishes are sold most often.

·         Punch Bowl - A bowl used for mixing and serving punch

·         RSA - Certificate for Responsible Service of Alcohol

·         Shot Glass - A small 30ml glass suitable for a full measure of spirits and also a serving glass for shots and shooters.

·         Silver Service - A method of table service that usually includes serving food at the table. It is a technique of transferring food from a service dish to the guest's plate from the left. The table is set for hors d'oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware. The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves each guest using a service spoon and fork. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing.

·         Slammed - Very busy.

·         Table d' hote - Entree, main and dessert for a set price

·         Tip - Originally standing for ‘To Insure Prompt Service’, a tip is given as a monetary value for good food or service.

·         Waiters Friend - A foldable corkscrew and bottle opener.

·         Walk-in - 1. Guests that come in without a booking. 2. A large fridge.